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Almanac Pasai Sumatra:


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<!–
function GregorianMonths(formelement)
{

var months=new Array(13);
months[0]="January"
months[1]="February"
months[2]="March"
months[3]="April"
months[4]="May"
months[5]="June"
months[6]="July"
months[7]="August"
months[8]="September"
months[9]="October"
months[10]="November"
months[11]="December"

formelement.year.value=2004;

formelement.month.options.length=12;

for (var k=0; k<12; k++)
{

formelement.month.options[k].text=months[k];
formelement.month.options[k].value=k+1;
if(k==0)
{
formelement.month.options[0].selected="true";
}
}
}

function HijriMonths(formelement)
{
var months=new Array(13);
months[0]="Muharram"
months[1]="Safar"
months[2]="Rabi Al-Awwal"
months[3]="Rabi Al-Akhar"
months[4]="Jumada Al-Awwal"
months[5]="Jumada Al-Akhirah"
months[6]="Rajab"
months[7]="Shaban"
months[8]="Ramadan"
months[9]="Shawwal"
months[10]="Dhul-Qadah"
months[11]="Dhul-Hijjah"

formelement.year.value=1425;

formelement.month.options.length=12;

for (var k=0; k

Date Conversion
Gregorian to Hijri Hijri to Gregorian
Day:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Month:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Year

Jawi Scripts of PASAI SUMATRA:

Character/Isolated/Initial/Medial/Final/Name

ا ﺍ ﺎ alif
ب ﺏ ﺑ ـﺒ ـﺐ ba
ت ﺕ ﺗ ـﺘ ـﺖ ta
ث ﺙ ﺛ ـﺜ ـﺚ tsa
ج ﺝ ﺟ ـﺠ ـﺞ jim
ح ﺡ ﺣ ـﺤ ـﺢ hha
چ ﭺ ﭼ ـﭽ ـﭻ ca
خ ﺥ ﺧ ـﺨ ـﺦ kha
د د ـد dal
ذ ﺫ ـذ dzal
ر ﺭ ـر ra
ز ﺯ ـز zai
س ﺱ ﺳ ـﺴ ـﺲ sin
ش ﺵ ﺷ ـﺸ ـﺶ syin
ص ﺹ ﺻ ـﺼ ـﺺ shad
ض ﺽ ﺿ ـﻀ ـﺾ dhad
ط ﻁ ﻃ ـﻄ ـﻂ tho
ظ ﻅ ﻇ ـﻈ ـﻆ zho
ع ﻉ ﻋ ـﻌـ ـﻊ ain
غ ﻍ ﻏ ـﻐـ ـﻎ ghain
ڠ ڠ ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ nga
ف ﻑ ﻓ ـﻔ ـﻒ fa
ڤ ﭪ ﭬ ـﭭ ـﭫ pa
ق ﻕ ﻗ ـﻘ ـﻖ qaf
ك ﻙ ﻛ ـﻜ ـﻚ kaf
ڬ ڬ ڬـ ـڬـ ـڬ gaf
ل ﻝ ﻟ ـﻠ ـﻞ lam
م ﻡ ﻣ ـﻤ ـﻢ mim
ن ﻥ ﻧ ـﻨ ﻦ nun
و ﻭ ـو wau
ۏ ۏ ـۏ va
ه ﻩ ﻫ ـﻬ ﻪ ha
ي ﻱ ﻳ ـﻴـ ﻲ ya
ڽ ڽ پـ ـپـ ـڽ nya
ء ء ء hamzah

Pasai Caligraphy

PASAI Archeology

(Queen Nahrisha of Pasai)

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Meurah Silu alias Malikussaleh

*Image of Meurah Silu alias Malikul Saleh by Meurah Mai Dar


Chronology of Samudra Pasai Sultanate
(Special Research in European Numismatical Collections)

Reconstructed by M. Mai Dar

1. Sultan Ahmad I (AD ca. 1270-1280)
(Coins: still observing)

2. Sultan X (AD 1280-1297)(Coins: still observing)

3. Sultan Muhammad (AD 1297-1326)(observing 3 coins in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

4. Sultan Mansur (AD 1326-13??)(observing 1 coin in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

5. Sultan Mahmud (AD 1326-1345)(observing 1 coin in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

6. Sultan Ahmad II (AD 1346-1383)(observing 3 coins in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

7. Sultan Zain al-Abidin (AD 1383-1405)(observing 4 coins in Europe)(Coins: GOLD)

8. Sultan Salah ad-Din (AD 1405-1412)(observing 2 coins in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

9. Sultan Abu Zaid (AD ca. 1412-14??)(observing 3 coins in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

10. Sultan Moemin (AD ca. 1455)(observing 1 coin in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

11. Sultan X (AD 14??-1501)(still observing)

12. Sultan Abd Allah (AD 1501-1513)(observing 3 coins in Europe)
(Coins: GOLD)

Detailed Numismatical Observation:

1. Sultan Muhammad (AH 696 – 726 / AD 1297-1326)

Legacy:

KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 9.5 mm / 10 mm / 10 mm
Obverse/Written: mhmad; mlk; a lza hr = Muhammad Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: a lslta n; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

2. Sultan Mansur (AD 1326-13??)

Legacy:

KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 11 mm
Obverse/Written: mnsu r; mlk; a lza hr = Mansur Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: al-sltan; a lad l = al-Sultan al-Adil

3. Sultan Mahmud (AD 1326-1345)

Legacy:

KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 10 mm
Obverse/Writen: mhmud; mlk; l za hr = Mahmud Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written:a lsltan; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

3. Sultan Ahmad II (AD 1346-1383)

Legacy:

a)

1/2 Kupang
Coin: gold
Weight: 0.24 gram
Diameter: 6.0 mm
Obverse/Written: a hmad = Ahmad unexplained text (partly of the planchet)
Reverse/Written: a lslta n; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil (The just Sultan)

b)

Kupang
Coin: gold
Diameter: 10 mm / 11 mm
Obverse/Written: a hmad; mlk; a lza hr = Ahmad Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: a lsltan; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

4. Sultan Zain al-‘Abidin (AD 1383-1405)

Legacy:

a)
KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 14.0 mm / 14.5 mm / 11.5 mm
Obverse/Written: z ain; a l’a bd in / l’a bd in; mlk; a lza hr = Zain al-‘Abidin Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: a lslta n; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

b)
KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 10 mm
Obverse/Written: z ain; a l’a bd in = Zain al-‘Abidin
Reverse/Written: a lsltan; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

5. Sultan Salah ad-Din (AD 1405-1412)

Legacy:

Kupang
Coin: gold
Diameter: 10 mm / 11 mm
Obverse/Written: sala h; a ld in = Salah al-Din
Reverse/Written: a lslta n; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

6. Sultan Abu Zaid (AD 1412-14??)

Legacy:

a)
KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 11 mm / 11 mm / 10 mm / 9.5 mm
Obverse/Written: a bu; z a id; mlk; a lza hr = Abu Zaid Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: al-sultan; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

b)
KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 11 mm
Obverse/Written: a bu; z a id; a hmd; mlk; a lza hr = Abu Zaid Ahmad Malik az-Zahir
Reverse/Written: al-sltan; a lad l = al-Sultan al-Adil

7. Sultan Moemin (AD ca. 1455)

Legacy:

KUPANG
Coin: gold
Diameter: 9 mm
Obverse/Written: ali; Ali; mlk; l za hr = Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: a lsltan; a lad i l = al-Sultan al-Adil

8. Sultan Abd Allah (AD 1501-1513)

Legacy:

Kupang
Coin: gold
Diameter: 10.5 mm / 11.0 mm / 10.0 mm
Obverse/Written: abdallah; mlk; lza hr = Abdallah Malik al-Zahir
Reverse/Written: al-sultan; a la d l = al-Sultan al-Adil


PASAI or widely known as the twin city-states Samudra-Pasai founded by a great patron Meurah Silu alias Malikul Saleh (see picture). Samudra Pasai (Pasai Sumatra — adopted as the name of the whole island Sumatra) exported its culture, and most importantly its language — an early form of Malay written in the Jawi alphabet — to a number of islands. Later, this language became the lingua franca among traders in Southeast Asian archipelago or in what is now Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Philippine, Southern Thailand, Southern Vietnam/Champa, Southern Cambodia, etc.

By the 13th century the collapse of budhist Srivijayan power, drew foreign traders harbours on the northern Sumatran shores. The establishment of the first Muslim centres in this region was probably a result of commercial circumstances. By the end of the 14th century, Samudra-Pasai had become a wealthy commercial centre, giving way in the early 15th century to the better protected harbour of Malacca on the south-west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Imperial Majapahit attacked and looted the place in the middle of the 14th century.

But substantial evidence of Islām in this archipelago begins only in northern Sumatra (Samudra) at the end of the 13th century. This two small Muslim trading kingdoms existed by that time at Samudra-Pasai. A royal tomb at Samudra, of 1297, is inscribed entirely in Arabic. Pasai’s economic and political power depended almost entirely on foreigners.

Muslim traders and teachers probably participated in its administration from the beginning and were bound to introduce religious practices that made them feel at home. The first Muslim beachheads in Indonesia, especially Pasai, were to a considerable extent genuine Muslim creations that commanded the loyalty of the local population and encouraged scholarly activities. Similar new harbour kingdoms formed on the northern coast of Java. Tomé Pires, author of the Suma Oriental, writing not long after 1511, stresses the obscure ethnic origins of the founders of Cheribon, Demak, Japara, and Gresik. These Javanese coastal states served commerce with India and China and especially with Malacca, an importer of Javanese rice. The rulers of Malacca, despite their prestigious Srivijayan origin, accepted Islam precisely in order to attract Muslim and Javanese traders to their port.

The Portuguese occupied Pasai in 1521, 10 years after their conquest of Malacca.

The historical saga of Pasai had been vividly documented in the Pasai Chronicles (Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai), the first and the oldest Malay chronicles. Scientific, hermeneutic and heuristic approachment could be implemented to understand these mythological chronicles. More about this page will be displayed separately or please visit our Summary Page in Malay Pasai language.

More about Pasai Civilization and the Universal History Series are being prepared by our editors. Please check our SERIES page for the next edition.

Sources: Wiki, Pasai Sumatra International Archives, etc.

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